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Basic Syntax in Python | Python Complete Tutorial

Updated: May 3

Python, a versatile and powerful programming language, is renowned for its readability and simplicity. One of the key factors contributing to Python's popularity is its straightforward basic syntax, which makes it accessible for beginners while remaining expressive for experienced developers. Understanding the basics of Python syntax in this tutorial is crucial for anyone looking to write efficient and effective Python code.


Basic Syntax in Python - Complete Python Tutorial
Basic Syntax in Python

Python's syntax is renowned for its simplicity and readability, making it an ideal language for both beginners and experienced developers. Notably, Python relies on indentation to define code blocks, enhancing readability and enforcing proper structuring. Variables in Python are dynamically typed, allowing for flexibility in data representation, and common data types include integers, floats, strings, and booleans. Comments, marked with the '#' symbol, provide explanatory notes within the code without affecting execution. Control flow structures like if, elif, else, and loops such as for and while govern the flow of execution. Functions, defined with the 'def' keyword, encapsulate reusable code segments, and the return statement sends values back. This foundational understanding of Python syntax serves as a gateway to more advanced programming concepts, empowering developers to create efficient and maintainable code.



You can watch the video-based tutorial with a step-by-step explanation down below.


Printing in python


In Python, the print() function is commonly used to display information on the console. It allows you to output text, variables, and expressions.

# print
print("Hello World")

Hello World

  • This is a simple yet classic example often used as the first program when learning a new programming language.

  • When you run this script, it will output "Hello World" to the console. This basic print statement is a fundamental way to introduce beginners to the syntax and functionality of the print() function in Python.


Variables in Python


In Python, variables are dynamically typed, meaning their data type is inferred at runtime. Variable names can consist of letters, numbers, and underscores but must start with a letter.

# variable
a = 10
print(a)

10

  • You can assign values to variables using the equal sign (=). The variable name is on the left, and the value is on the right.

  • Python variables can hold different types of data, including integers, floats, strings, booleans, and more.

  • When you run the above code snippet , it will output 10 to the console, confirming that the variable a holds the value assigned to it. This is a fundamental example that illustrates the process of variable assignment and retrieval in Python.


Multiple Statements in python


In Python, multiple statements can be written in a script or program, and they are typically separated by newline characters or semicolons.

# multiline statements
total = 1 + \
        2 + \
        3
print(total)
  • In Python, a backslash \ at the end of a line allows the statement to continue on the next line. This is particularly useful when you have a long line of code, and you want to split it for better readability.

  • Even though the addition operation spans multiple lines, the backslash indicates that it is part of the same statement. When you run the above code snippet , it will output 6 to the console, as the variables on each line are summed up to calculate the total.


Quotation in python


In Python, you can use single (') or double (") quotation marks to define strings. Both methods are interchangeable, and you can choose the style that fits your preference.

# quotes
var = 'hacker'
print(var)
var = "realm"
print(var)
var = """This is a
big paragraph"""
print(var)

hacker

realm

This is a

big paragraph

  • In the above code snippet we have used single quotes for the first string ('hacker'), double quotes for the second string ("realm"), and triple quotes for the third string ("""This is a big paragraph""").

  • Triple-quoted strings are particularly useful when you need to create multiline strings, as they preserve line breaks and make the code more readable. This can be beneficial for docstrings, long descriptions, or any string that spans multiple lines.


Comments in python


In Python, comments are used to annotate code and provide additional information. Comments are not executed by the Python interpreter and are primarily intended for human readers.

# comment
# This is single line comment
# print("hello")

# """
# type your content
# """
# Ctrl + /
  • The use of single-line comments in Python, marked by the # symbol. Single-line comments are used to provide explanatory notes within the code and are not executed by the Python interpreter.

  • The second line, which contains the print("hello") statement, is commented out, meaning it won't be executed when the script is run.

  • We have included a multiline comment using triple quotes ("""). While this is a common way to create multiline comments, it's important to note that Python does not have a dedicated syntax for multiline comments like some other languages.

  • The comment notation Ctrl + / is a keyboard shortcut often used in integrated development environments (IDEs) to comment or uncomment selected lines of code quickly.


Getting user input in python


In Python, you can use the input() function to get user input from the console.

# input
a = input("Enter your name: ")

Enter your name: ash

  • input("Enter your name: "): This line prompts the user with the message "Enter your name: " and waits for the user to input their name.

  • The entered name is then stored in the variable a.

  • Here we have entered name as ash

  • The input() always returns a string, so if you need to perform numerical operations, you might need to convert the input using functions like int() or float().

  • Remember to handle user input carefully and consider incorporating error handling mechanisms to account for unexpected input.


Next we will display the given input.

print(a)

ash


Multiple statements in a single line


In Python, you can place multiple statements on a single line by separating them with a semicolon (;).

# multiple statements in a single line
a = 1;b = 2;c = 3;print(a,b,c)

1 2 3

  • a = 5: Assigns the value 5 to the variable a.

  • b = 3: Assigns the value 3 to the variable b.

  • c = a + b: Adds the values of a and b and assigns the result to the variable c.

  • print("The sum is:", c): Prints the result of the addition.

  • While this syntax is valid, it is generally recommended to use multiple lines for better readability, especially when the statements are not closely related.


Swap two integers without the third variable


You can swap two integers without using a third variable by using arithmetic operations.

# how to swap two integers without the third varible
a,b = b,a 
  • a, b = b, a: This line simultaneously assigns the value of b to a and the value of a to b. It effectively swaps the values of the two variables in a single line.


Next we will print the values of a and b after swapping.

print(a,b)

2 1



Final Thoughts

  • Python is designed with readability in mind. Its syntax is clean and straightforward, making it accessible for beginners and enjoyable for experienced developers.

  • Python uses indentation to define code blocks. Proper indentation is crucial for code readability and is not just a stylistic choice but an integral part of the language.

  • Pythonic idioms, such as swapping variables using tuple unpacking (a, b = b, a), contribute to concise and expressive code.

  • Adhering to Python's coding style guide (PEP 8) and adopting best practices contributes to code consistency and maintainability.


Mastering basic syntax is just the beginning of your Python journey. As you progress, you'll explore more advanced topics such as object-oriented programming, file handling, libraries, and frameworks. Continuously practice and explore real-world projects to reinforce your understanding and become a proficient Python developer.



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